|Title||Reversal of pancuronium. Neuromuscular and cardiovascular effects of a mixture of neostigmine and glycopyrronium.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||1988|
|Authors||Goldhill DR, Embree PB, Ali HH, Savarese JJ|
|Date Published||1988 Jun|
|Keywords||Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Drug Combinations, Glycopyrrolate, Heart Rate, Humans, Middle Aged, Muscle Contraction, Neostigmine, Neuromuscular Junction, Pancuronium, Pyrrolidines, Random Allocation, Time Factors|
Moderate to deep (67-99% single twitch depression) pancuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade was antagonised with neostigmine (30 micrograms/kg, 60 micrograms/kg, or 80 micrograms/kg) in combination with glycopyrronium. Twenty-seven patients were reversed from 91%-99% twitch depression. Recovery of the first twitch of a train-of-four to 95% of control twitch took at least 20 minutes with neostigmine 30 micrograms/kg. The higher doses were significantly faster (60 micrograms/kg p less than 0.05, 80 micrograms/kg p less than 0.01) and took 15.8 and 14.8 minutes respectively. Reversal to a train of four ratio of 0.75 was not consistently achieved in under 30 minutes with any dose of neostigmine. Nineteen patients were antagonised from a 67%-80% depression of first twitch and in all but two recovery to 95% of control took under 10 minutes. To achieve a train of four ratio of 0.75 took less than 12.5 minutes except in three patients, two of whom, both given neostigmine 30 micrograms/kg, took longer than 20 minutes. Neostigmine 60 micrograms/kg produced as rapid a degree of antagonism as 80 micrograms/kg. Heart rates after reversal decreased gradually in all groups, although the decrease was initially greater in the low dose neostigmine (30 micrograms/kg) group. A fixed 5:1 ratio of neostigmine and glycopyrronium will usually antagonise a moderate (70%-80%) pancuronium block to a train of four of greater than 75% within 12.5 minutes if at least 60 micrograms/kg of neostigmine is administered. More than 30 minutes may be required for reversal whatever the dose of neostigmine, for antagonism from greater than 90% twitch depression.