Preexisting Opioid Use Disorder and Outcomes After Lower Extremity Arthroplasty: A Multistate Analysis, 2007-2014.

TitlePreexisting Opioid Use Disorder and Outcomes After Lower Extremity Arthroplasty: A Multistate Analysis, 2007-2014.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsChen SA, White RS, Tangel V, Gupta S, Stambough JB, Gaber-Baylis LK, Weinberg R
JournalPain Med
Date Published2020 Apr 06

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association of preexisting opioid use disorder and postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA, respectively) in the overall population and in the Medicare-only population.

METHODS: This retrospective cohort study examined data from the State Inpatient Databases of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project for the years 2007-2014 from California, Florida, New York, Maryland, and Kentucky. We compared patients with and without opioid use disorders on unadjusted rates and calculated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of in-hospital mortality, postoperative complications, length of stay, and 30-day and 90-day readmission status; analyses were repeated in a subgroup of Medicare insurance patients only.

SUBJECTS: After applying our exclusion criteria, our study included 1,422,210 adult patients undergoing lower extremity arthroplasties, including 818,931 Medicare insurance patients. In our study, 0.4% of THA patients and 0.3% of TKA patients had present-on-admission opioid use disorder.

RESULTS: Opioid use disorder patients were at higher risk for in-hospital mortality (aOR = 3.10), 30- and 90-day readmissions (aORs = 1.81, 1.81), and pulmonary and infectious complications (aORs = 1.25, 1.96).

CONCLUSIONS: Present-on-admission opioid use disorder was a risk factor for worse postoperative outcomes and increased health care utilization in the lower extremity arthroplasty population. Opioid use disorder is a potentially modifiable risk factor for mortality, postoperative complications, and health care utilization, especially in the at-risk Medicare population.

Alternate JournalPain Med
PubMed ID32249897