|Title||Isoflurane Inhibits Dopaminergic Synaptic Vesicle Exocytosis Coupled to Ca2.1 and Ca2.2 in Rat Midbrain Neurons.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2019|
|Authors||Torturo CL, Zhou Z-Y, Ryan TA, Hemmings HC|
|Date Published||2019 Jan-Feb|
Volatile anesthetics affect neuronal signaling by poorly understood mechanisms. Activation of central dopaminergic pathways has been implicated in emergence from general anesthesia. The volatile anesthetic isoflurane differentially inhibits glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic vesicle (SV) exocytosis by reducing presynaptic Ca influx without affecting the Ca-exocytosis relationship, but its effects on dopaminergic exocytosis are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that isoflurane inhibits exocytosis in dopaminergic neurons. We used electrical stimulation or depolarization by elevated extracellular KCl to evoke exocytosis measured by quantitative live-cell fluorescence imaging in cultured rat ventral tegmental area neurons. Using trains of electrically evoked action potentials (APs), isoflurane inhibited exocytosis in dopaminergic neurons to a greater extent (30 ± 4% inhibition; < 0.0001) than in non-dopaminergic neurons (15 ± 5% inhibition; = 0.014). Isoflurane also inhibited exocytosis evoked by elevated KCl in dopaminergic neurons (35 ± 6% inhibition; = 0.0007), but not in non-dopaminergic neurons (2 ± 4% inhibition). Pharmacological isolation of presynaptic Ca channel subtypes showed that isoflurane inhibited KCl-evoked exocytosis mediated exclusively by either Ca2.1 (P/Q-type Ca channels; 30 ± 5% inhibition; = 0.0002) or by Ca2.2 (N-type Ca channels; 35 ± 11% inhibition; = 0.015). Additionally, isoflurane inhibited single AP-evoked Ca influx by 41 ± 3% and single AP-evoked exocytosis by 34 ± 6%. Comparable reductions in exocytosis and Ca influx were produced by lowering extracellular [Ca]. Thus, isoflurane inhibits exocytosis from dopaminergic neurons by a mechanism distinct from that in non-dopaminergic neurons involving reduced Ca entry through Ca2.1 and/or Ca2.2.
|PubMed Central ID||PMC6345200|